We don’t know. But it is old as former cultures already knew it. We know that the walls of the palace of Ramses III in Egypt were enameled. The colors melted on the wall were turquoise, cobalt blue, emerald green and crimson.
It is known that in the Far East, in India and China they had lots of experience in enameling a long time ago. So it is not easy to find a golden thread through the history of enameling art as it developed differently on many places in the world. Different techniques were used e. g. Plique-à-Jour, Champlevé, Basse-Taille, Cloisonné, Ronde-bosse, Limoges and some other more.
Nowadays artists use every of this methods, sometimes in combination.
Today enamel has the biggest importance not in art but in industrial-, economic-, and consumer goods. You can’t even compare today’s modern enameling methods to the old artwork methods. But the enamel is still here with its specific characteristic and its shine.